ForWarn discovered a reoccurring anomaly in the bottomland wetlands of South Carolina. Similar anomalies were seen in 2010, 2014, and 2015 in the area of concern. Starting in January, the winter anomaly excludes association with insect defoliation. The decline in vegetation greenness can be attributed to an unusually cold winter or flooding.
Coastal forests and shrublands can be vulnerable to climate-associated disturbances such as the strong winds and storm surges associated with hurricanes. Because of its extension into the Atlantic, eastern North Carolina is especially vulnerable to such storms, having been hit by several hurricanes during the MODIS period of record (i.e., since 2000). In 2014, Hurricane Arthur struck causing relatively minor damage to forests compared to two earlier events, namely 2003's Hurricane Isabel and 2011's Hurricane Irene.
In early September of 2013, unusually heavy rain resulted in catastrophic flooding across Colorado’s Front Range and downstream along the South Platte River. Rainfall exceeded 20 inches northwest of Denver, which is close to the average rainfall for that area during an entire year. Flash floods led to massive evacuations, a severe loss of public and private property, and loss of human life. Oil and gas lines and tanks were damaged, causing the release of thousands of gallons of pollutants into the South Platte River.
The Atchafalaya basin's forests thrive with seasonal flooding, yet high water is normally a spring phenomenon there. During the past month, unusually high water levels have inundated wetlands and forests along and near the Mississippi River basin. From space, floodwaters appear to decrease existing vegetation, as water masks low lying plant cover. According to the USGS, river discharge at Morgan City, Louisiana was 145,000 ft3/sec on January 16, 2012 compared to 84,000 ft3/sec the prior year. (See http://waterdata.usgs.gov.)